This article was written in 2006 by a young student, Ms Ramla Akhtar (nowadays calling herself « Rmala Aalam »). It is reproduced under the creative common policy. Credit is given to the author. Akhtar migrated from Karachi to the mountains of northern Pakistan in 2013, where she lived until 2020. In May 2019, she entered into an open religious and ethnic confrontation with the minority among whom she liveD. Then, 14 years after its writing, this article becomes an important document to understand the basis for a radical shift in this unusual character.
The text, as it was published by the author, comes from here: https:// http://www.slideshare.net/ nextbyramla/ the-peoplecentered-model-of-business-tm-presentation. It is sometimes, confused and may be hard to read, while it was probably not edited by a third party. To respect the creation no changes have been made to the publication. Then, for its understanding, the slides produced with the paper are provided as attachments.
For a 2020 update about Ms Ramla Akhtar, please refer to the addendum at the end of this article.
Picture: Rama Akhtar at a time she lived in Karachi- Source public blog: http:// thedignifiedhunza.blogspot.com/p/blog-page.html
The Works and the Words
This is the first draft of the paper – and a very rough version to be shared with a limited audience. More research and work on the PC MOB is under progress. Yes, I have used some stuff – photos etc. – for which I am seeking permission. The formal version of the paper will have unauthorized material replaced.
This paper can be distributed freely provided credit is given to the author and the author’s current website is linked to. The paper is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
By: Ramla Akhtar | April, 2006 | Karachi | Ramla is a philosopher, entrepreneur, and teacher. | nextbyramla. blogspot.com
WHY DO WE DO BUSINESS?
INTRODUCING PC MOB – THE PEOPLE-CENTERED MODEL OF BUSINESS
What They Won’t Teach You at Any Business School Money.
The singular curse of those aspiring to about finding and creating opportunities, succeed in the world of business. The most about making oneself and one’s community hated-loved thing of all. Yet most business richer. But to my horror, the class broke in a graduates and common people would say: we chorus: “For money!” do business for money. My heart sank. Didn’t they know where the At the end of a semester that I taught on chasers of money end up? Weren’t they entrepreneurship, I was feeling both relieved listening closely to the secrets of the most and excited in the last class. As I saw it, the successful men and women? Was that all men and women of the class had learnt the about money? essentials about business. I had taught them about vision, opportunities, the nuts & bolts of And then my heart bounced back. There was business, and I had taught them to do away still this last class to go. I turned to the with both the taboo and the fascination of whiteboard, and decided to put it all together, money. I had taught them to “see” the flow of for them, and for the integrity of the money in business – a trick that I learnt from education that I gave them. What follows is a Memon businessman, and one that is a an epiphany that I had at that very moment, best-kept secret. I thought I had rounded it off and one that has taken months of after- well. thought to develop into this shape. It is a model, still raw, that explains what occurred Was I wrong! In the last session, I quizzed, to me at that moment. It shows us why we do “Why do we do business?” I expected to hear business. It tells us something that they won’t back about vision, about changing the world, teach you at most business schools.
Business for Money?
Why do we do business? While there are themselves more content and invigorated individual reasons to start and operate a than those without one. business – especially the entrepreneurial one – there are essentials to a business. Money, This is a serious insight. The best test of this as is wrongly understood, is not the reason of theory is to take up real examples, and learn business. It is the dynamic of a business. how the world’s most sustainably successful companies and individuals became what they Saying that business is for money is like are. Invariably, you will find that their saying that we live to be healthy. While we motivation was other than money. You may cannot live fully without health, and poor also note the term “sustainable.” It is health can kill us, and we can always use important, because there is sometimes a better health – health is what sustains life. temporary success that can be based on false Health is not the purpose of life. Health helps practices. It is ultimately not sustainable. And one achieve the higher and the more personal it must not deceive our perception. goals that they have, whatever those might be. That is why an unproductive person with an So how do we look at business if not purely in athletic body is of no good use to themselves terms of making money? or their community. On the other hand, a person of average health with a solid I propose the People-Centered Model of People- contribution to life is their own and their Business as an alternative way of looking at community’s friend. Surely, they can use the world of business. In one line, let this be more vigor. But fitness alone will not make the mantra: we do business for these people. them successful. And interestingly, those with a purpose will, in the longer-term, find That’s the gist of this article in six words.
By: Ramla Akhtar | April, 2006 | Karachi | Ramla is a philosopher, entrepreneur, and teacher. | nextbyramla.blogspot.com Page 2 of 11
PC MOB – The People-Centered Model of Business
By: Ramla Akhtar | April, 2006 | Karachi | Ramla is a philosopher, entrepreneur, and teacher. | nextbyramla.blogspot.com Page 3 of 11
Business = Busy-ness
Business, then, is a part of this scheme. The word “business” is “busy-ness.” Picture this diagram in movement. Where an ill person is Look closely at the diagram. This is a schema being treated, a household manager is buying of a normal person’s life. Each day, a person groceries, someone is getting info for profit, plays different “roles” which relate to any of building homes, or spending on safety, travel, the four “zones” of their life. Starting from the or learning – it is “the busy-ness of life.” Since top (Spiritual Zone), these zones progress this movement requires a deep web of from the personal to the familial to the social “helpers” who are paid in money, business is to the universal (Eco-Political Zone). At any created. Business is thus a part of the society given day, an adult is wearing one of these if it is based on the real needs and many hats, and then some. Each day, that understanding of the society. Whoever was person needs help in performing these roles, trying to sell refrigerators to Eskimos was a because Man is a social animal and cannot conman, and died unpopular. Does anyone survive in isolation. remember his name?
Roles, Concerns, Aspirations
Within a family, barter of services and sacrifices can be arranged, for this is human Not everyone gets to play out all these roles, nature to love and favor the kin. A that too at once. Some of these roles are not collaborative arrangement is made. But when even physically active. A finer approach would a person steps out of the family and creates a to be to divide this schema into three layers: social-economic contract (who will do what for whom on what terms), it begins to involve a 1. Life-roles common denominator, some medium of 2. Life-concerns exchange that is understandable by all. That 3. Life-aspirations denominator is service in kind or money. This money-based transaction, when not done for A “role” would be when a person plays an service of the humanitarian kind, is called active part in their situation. A “concern” is “business.” their problem over which they currently have no individual power to act; it is an undesirable but necessary role that they cannot play. An “aspiration” is a higher or a desired role that a person cannot play at a given time because of natural or imposed limitations. All these elements are liable to change into one another depending on the situation. The generic term “role” is used to refer to all these scenarios.
The Four Life Zones
1. Spiritual (S) Zone
2. Personal-Familial (PF) Zone
It is the area of a person’s life that deals with Family is the basic unit of society – their beliefs, ideologies, and worship. In the independent of whether it’s a joint, nuclear, or PC MOB, it is the primary zone. In Islamic dysfunctional family. Personal beliefs shape philosophy, worship is acting out one’s part in family dynamics and families shape the the scheme of things.1 In that way, it is first a society. In Maslow’s terms, the personal- personal act, and ultimately a familial zone is where a person seeks both social/ecological one. Just as the Sun shines emotional and physical security and stability.3 in itself, but serves the entire planetary This can determine the level of peace in the system. Belief (or the lack of it) is the starting society. While a person can cope alone with point of a person’s being, and a belief system many an issue, most people cannot retain the is what separates one culture from another.2 same determination when it comes to their Hence to understand a person and their parents, children, and other loved ones. culture, it is important to understand their belief and spiritual system. A person can also not be studied alone as forever an individual – which, I am watching Closely related to the faith system of a person with concern, is the growing trend pushed by are their heart, and their intellectual mind and the global “iSociety.” A person will always free will. In a well-integrated personality, remain a part of a family, even if it as these will show a clear cohesion, and a comically dysfunctional as the one in Malcolm person will act out in accordance to their in the Middle. S/he is an individual in the beliefs. In people who have disintegrated context of that family. Products and services beliefs, there will be frustration and anxiety; that deny seeing this are increasingly being and in healthier cases, an aspiration to have a rejected by conscious societies around the better belief. globe. The examiner of the spiritual zone must know
3. Socio-Economic (SE)
Zone that a belief can be true, false, completely wrong, or absent. It must be diagnosed A person interacts with the larger community critically as to what kind of belief the people for economic and social purposes. This is have? Assuming or trying to create a hyper- where a transaction occurs between personal- real belief can be ill-received. Also, a familial values of individuals and households businessperson cannot singularly assume the as they begin to interact with one another. A job of correcting a belief system. Marketers shared vision that governs the social contracts with a mission have to be careful. Mission and is created out of those dynamics. These in business will not generate profit – and an turn determine society’s collective behavior. enterprise that attempts to do that must either be in the social sector, or prepare to In this zone, a person rises above the self- face unreliable reception. development and family care needs to communicate with the society at large. Help is It is this zone that also determines the given and taken. A person is both an behavior of a person in the other dimensions employer and an employee in the economic of their life. system. Information is traded; people earn, save and build; and money becomes a medium of exchange. Technology emerges to facilitate the speed and beauty of transactions between people and resources.4 Being in the third zone is also why money isn’t exactly a primary need. In the earlier zones, a
family can be self-sufficient if it chooses, at the cost of being social (since they will neither In well-matured societies, this zone have time nor exchange media to interact represents universal love, art, entertainment, with society). travel, and discovery. Media is the child and the lifeblood of this zone – because media is A person will choose their socio-economic the media between the real products and behavior in line of how they have developed in people who already exist. A media that exists the S and PF zone. Societies that do not have in wishful societies leads to their corrosion by open information and communication, where frustration. transactions are not facilitated, and social contracts are not honored become unfair and Islamic philosophy places the institutions of “zalim” (transgressive) societies. They are charity, establishment of good and prevention marked by confusion, resentment and of evil, collective salaat,7 the judicial system, occasional violence. It must be noted that defense, foreign affairs, and jihad in this zone. “chaos” and “creative destruction” are It is because these are higher level societal positive terms, though they are used needs that cannot be imposed on immature carelessly. These are signs of a living society, people. not a troubled one.5 The Cyclic Relationship of the
4. Eco-Political (EP)
Zone 6 Four Life Zones Finally, a balanced human progresses enough The Four Life Zones are not strictly separate. to participate in the larger multi-/universe – Some roles overlap boundaries, other can fit of law, politics, ecology, and world philosophy. into other zones. The most interesting thing, Note the word “balanced.” It is used to however, it is that these zones are connected describe a person who has experienced, in a cycle, which I have called The Circle of learnt from, and evolved from the previous Life. When each zone reinforces the other, it’s three zones. Without this, a balanced a progressive cycle. When each zone leads to development is not possible, for it is against spillover ill effects in the next, it’s a vicious the principles of nature and creation. cycle. Some groups try to short-cut the first three zones, and jump into the universal zone perhaps as a means to avoid their duties and fight for rights in the S, PF, and SE zones. That results in a perpetual futile conflict between these wishful idealists and the society which rightfully needs able persons.
Reading the PC MOB Expressions vs. Roles
Before using the PC MOB, it must be remembered that it only shows the roles, it does not show the expression of those roles. For examples, the spiritual zone will be quite different for people across cultures – and some groups of people will be more spiritual than others. Likewise, one nation can be more lawful than another; and laws of marriage and business will be diverse across various groups. While the roles shown will broadly be the same for consumers across times and regions, the expressions of those roles will be quite different. A classic example is of the enactment of Shakespearean plays. Each director interprets the play in their own way. We have seen a gun-toting, car-smashing Romeo in a 20th century movie.
Missing, Exaggerated, Underplayed Roles = Opportunities
It is the job of the one using this model to determine how these roles are being carried out by the people being studied. This exercise will actually lead to an exciting revelation: some roles will be missing some exaggerated missing, exaggerated, and others underplayed. This is exactly where underplayed. the problems/ opportunities for an entrepreneur and a marketer will lie. The task of the entrepreneur is to create absent roles, facilitate existing ones, and in some cases abate or share the exaggerated ones. For instance if people are not traveling, which they must, the entrepreneur can look into providing that facility after carefully studying why people are (not) doing what they are (not) doing? Or, s/he can facilitate a person in need by offering emergency help services. If people are acting out as lenders amongst themselves (households acting as firms, thus playing an exaggerated role), the entrepreneur can create a lending institute or a bank.
Characteristics of the PC MOB impose some vision imported from the outer space.
Questions, Not Answers
Empathetic The model shown in this paper is a template. The PC MOB elicits empathy as a reader takes These roles are questions, not answers. The a realistic stock of the people being studied. It role of “Ill,” e.g., asks the studier: what also gives a perspective to consumer study ailments does this group of people suffer and consumer insight. It is humanistic, and from? A clever person will know that poor socialistic – while accommodating the people do not suffer from heart disease (often accepted capitalist theory. In that way, it the result of overeating and laziness) as much bridges a gap between business and the as from infection (the product of filth). That pangs of conscience (sometimes prompted by person will set up a heart disease center in an activists). urban setting, not a village.
Accommodates Diversity Realistic, Not Fictional
The PC MOB implies strongly that one The PC MOB demands reality, not fiction, not consumer group’s life profile cannot be desire, not hope. It is based on facts, which projected reasonably onto another’s unless lead to insights. How will we know the they have great similarities in their four life answers to these questions? With research. zones – which is impossible owing to the With unstoppable curiosity and fact-finding. variety of human nature and culture. Hence With determination to really know the people drawing up a PC MOB profile for each group of and envision their needs and solutions, not consumers will lead to rich insights about their lives, tastes, aspirations.
PC MOB in Action
Even a simple meditative contemplation exercise on the diagram of this model will Being a picture of life with deep insights, the open doors of endless possibilities for the PC MOB can be put to a variety of uses, enterprising mind. Don’t take my word. Try it particularly strategic ones. I propose the out. Study the PC MOB, and write down on a following possible uses: paper the possible products and services that you can think of. Where do people need help? Compare your list with a friend’s. Use this as a
1. Consumer Insight/ Profiling/ creativity exercise in your organization. Consumer Behavior MOBilize the model! The People-Centered Model is elegant, and 3. Trend-Reading gives deep insights in to the nature of the people we do business with. Why do they Trend-reading is the interesting field that is demand certain things? What are their real catching on these days, thanks to the info- needs and wants? What motivates them? management technology which allows fast Why do they accept and reject certain things? data capture, analysis, and distribution. Trend- Why some businesses fail and others succeed? reading and trend analysis are “vision” by a Do people really ever change? Why is one trendier name. Plotting likely changes in group of people different from another, even these four zones for a group of people will though they live in the same region? Why lead to the creation of a “vision.” This vision products must rigorously re-adapt themselves can be based on research, or the “gut feel” of in certain regions because their success story an entrepreneur. is simply not replicating? However, I want to stress that there is no such These and many other answers are clearly thing as applying a vision from outer space to answered when an observer starts plotting the a group of people – because at the core of expressions onto the role. their hearts, they will never accept it, whether they know it or not. A vision has to be within the model, no matter how drastic. It has to, at the very least, take account of the nature of humans and the environment the group being studied is living in. The differential between a future profile and a present profile is an opportunity.
2. New Business Creation – MOBilize!
Business is finding a gap and filling it. And the Put another way, the future is present plus PC MOB shows a variety of roles that people what we do with it. It can be none other. need and want to play. By themselves, these roles are opportunities – because “busy-ness” is playing these roles, and helping others to fulfill their needs. In some societies such as Cleverly plotting the changes onto the present that of Pakistan, some of the needs of life are picture will lead to a vision for the future. The not being fulfilled because either the society changes can be within or beyond our control. has not progressed, or there is no facilitation “Change” is determined by getting social of those needs, such as the need for intelligence, market analysis, and one’s own grassroots level legal services. Yet the need is passion – because an entrepreneur is an there. (internal) agent of change. That change must be real change, not artificial.
4. Social-izing Business people and observers, is not to create an artistic anomaly.
Creativity is seeing the No need for capitalist panic! “Social-izing connections that exist between things, and business” is one of the most profound putting them together in newer but natural emerging global trends of the 21st century, ways. and one that is here to stay. There is a “market for virtue.”8 Businesses are pressed The Original Creator Himself follows a for accountability and ethics. Corporations discipline and an order. He designed different around the world are under increasing environments, and adapted people, fauna, pressure to contribute to the society that they and flora according to their environment. are operating in and the ones they impact. Humans took the cue. Do we know that They are calling green (eco-friendly) the new phonetics of the languages of an area evolve black (profitable). from the sounds of that area? In Pakistan, Pushto from the mountains has hard rocky Business is not a cancer. It is an integral part sounds. Punjabi from the open fields is of the society, and a legitimate one at that too. spoken loud & clear. Seraiki from the deserts The condition is that the business is is sweet and whispery as the sand. Urdu is empathetic to the society/societies it quiet and deliberate because it evolved in operates in and helps “busy-ness”. It must not palaces and urban settings. act as an external agent of unnecessary change. The great creative is one who accepts the natural order and the environment that they Change-making is a role reserved for are in. Delusion and hallucination is not good politicians, social scientists, religious leader, creativity. Commercial creativity – i.e. lawmakers, and teachers primarily. A advertising, etc. – is best when it understands business entrepreneur only operates in the its spiritual, social, political, legal, economic, environment created by them and brings environmental context, as shown in the PC secondary change. Where the entrepreneur MOB. This is also good marketing and the seems to be making a change is when s/he secret of the success of many an enterprise. accepts the society as is, and does not create products and markets for a make-belief group 6. Motivation! that only exists in their fantasies. Nor can a business live in denial of the society and Finally, a bigger picture not only creates environment around it. Understanding this purpose, it also gives motivation! You know fine point will save many businesses a lot of exactly what you are doing and how is it heartache and headache. making a contribution in the scheme of things. Businesses that derive themselves from (any The PC MOB makes it simpler to understand version) of the people-centered approach and the fabric of the society. It also establishes keep it as a guiding philosophy will find more the social context of the business so that reasons to live and grow and be loved. unnecessary conflict is avoided. In fact, business becomes a pleasure. The Body Shop In this age when people are asking the bigger started out as a hippie business with strong questions in life, and I have myself witnessed activist strains. It only ran a single ad in all its many searching for meaning and purpose – life, and grew by word of mouth. Now sold to the People-Centered Model of Business will L’Oreal, Body Shop hopes to trade its ethical bring a sense of integrity and meaning to one values up to Big Business. of the most important aspects of our lives: work. Entrepreneurs who follow this will not
5. Understanding Creativity find themselves lonely at the top.
People who work for corporations that practice this model What is creativity? This question baffles many sincerely will not see a discord between their minds, especially of the novice. Creativity, to work and the rest of their life. some of the most sophisticated creative
The Purpose of Business = Busy-ness for People
“The purpose of business is not to make money,” I told my class as I finished with the model. “Business is done to facilitate life, and LET’S TALK! here is the person that you are going to help. For money.” This is not some pseudo moral-
This paper is being shared with you for your review socialist nonsense. It is the secret of being and remarks. Feel free to write back to me at successful on a deep level. firstname.lastname@example.org. I love detailed comments, and listen to criticism. This is creating business. And this is the role of business in society. Businesses that keep a If you have some/ similar ideas, let’s talk. May be ideas reality check and empathize with their we can change the world together. consumers succeed. Those that don’t are in Use the PC MOB and tell me your story. I love peril, especially when competition arrives on entrepreneurs and other mad people. the scene. Appointments for lectures and consultancy on the subject are available, and can be made through A healthy-minded entrepreneur with good writing to email@example.com. intentions understands that there are always genuine needs to be satisfied. What is simpler CREDITS than giving the people what they really, really need and want? Who even needs Cover Art + Design: Ramla Akhtar abominations as “aggressive marketing Photography: Nabeel Shakeel Ahmed campaigns” when people are running after them!?
The class sat in silence and then broke in 1 Definition by the author, Ramla A deliberate applause. This lecture was ranked as the best one in the semester. To me as 2 Definition by Pakistani philosopher and writer, well to the students, it was the moment that Ashfaq Ahmad we broke out of the box, and got real. 3 Refer to Abraham Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” 4 These resources are human, physical, and financial 5 Joseph Schumpeter (The Theory of Creative Destruction), Tom Peters (“In Search of Excellence”) and Alvin Toffler are god resources for further study 6 The word “eco-” in the name means “ecology.” After long battles, ecologists have finally made this subject fashionable and a cause of general concern 7 Not ritual prayer, but the collective connection of the humankind with God 8 Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad, “Strategic Intent,” Harvard Business Review (March 1989), http://www.harvardbusinessonline.com: First of their series of HBR articles relating corporate capability to moral purpose (Reference source: strategy + business, Booze Allen Hamilton)
« NEXT> by Ramla« , that was supposed to becoming the individual consultancy firm of Ms Ramla Akhtar, never got any professional assignement. In 2015 it was re-packaged as Ramla’s Projects before being renamed under Rmala’s Projects in order to take advantage of a created confusion with NGO’s, while proposing fee assignments. It was also unsuccessful.
ADDENDUM, the author in 2020
Since May 2019, Ms Ramla Akhtar is having strong arguments against the Wakhi mountain communities living in northern Pakistan and focusing against the one of Chapursan Valley, especially M. Alam Jan Dario’s family who runs the Pamir Serai guest houses (There is, also, a light and fast loading version of Pamir Serai website for travelers with a poor connection: PamirSerai guest houses light version). Read, here, the report which was written about a sexual conspiracy she alleged having found. Read also how she writes her own spiritual path over the last decade. Understand how the young 26 years old globalist lost part of her illusions and how her discourse became less consensual. See how she, now, uses her writing skills on social media and on the global web.
Access to NEXT> by Ramla’s presentations
“NEXT> by Ramla” was an independent consulting firm belonging to Ms Ramla Akhtar (naming herself, nowadays, Rmala Aalam). The above presentation is also part of the review done for her area of expertise and her commercial services.
Access to: « NEXT> by Ramla », expertise review, practice versus theory.
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